ABSTRACT: The present biostratigraphic study of Palaeogene and Neogene carbonates focuses on the chronological evolution and paleoenvironment of the Eocene toMiocene stages and their facies before and during the episodic emersion ofMount Lebanon. Biozones based upon the presence of planktonic foraminifera, larger benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae in the Tertiary carbonates date for the first time major Cretaceous/Tertiary unconformities as well as lesser Neogene unconformities. Presently dated allochtonous carbonate detritals in younger host sediments provide a time line to earlier phases of interpreted emersions and/ or uplifts preceding the structural differentiation of Lebanon into a transpressive system, a restrained bend and a major transcurrent fault. For the first time, two shorelines are recognised and dated; a Palaeogene shoreline of Lutetian/Bartonian marine conglomerates and beach sands from Beirut to Jabal Terbol and a Neogene (Late Burdigalian) shoreline confined to south maritime Lebanon through Sidon and Tyre. Likewise, this study records the coincidence of a Quaternary beach rock above an older Tortonian/Messinian shoreline NE of Tyre. Biostratigraphic and sedimentary review of the EasternMediterranean Neogene confirms a Lebanon maritime differentiation from the neighbouring locations of coastal Israel in the south, South Eastern Cyprus, South Western Turkey and North Western Syria. It also links rhodalgal Langhian and Serravallian bank accretion to upwellings of cooler, nutrient rich waters and notes a slower rate of Tortonian and selective Messinian bank growth as warmer seas prevailed and affected the change in benthos and microfaunal communities.
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